Unit Trusts And Open Ended Investment Companies Collective Investments

Unit Trusts and Open Ended Investment Companies Collective Investments

Unit trusts and Open Ended Investment Companies (OEICs) are types of collective investments. In a collective investment, each individual investment is pooled with every other individual investment and then invested as a whole by the manager of the investment.

Different unit trust and OEIC funds invest in different asset classes – shares, bonds, cash and property. Some funds focus on just one asset class, while others invest in two or more. Irrespective of the asset class or classes they invest in, most fund managers will hold a wide spread of investments in their chosen asset class. That is one of the reasons why unit trusts and OEICs are popular with investors spreading investments across a range of businesses can help reduce a funds volatility and the risks for its investors.

Although unit trusts and OEICs are both open-ended investments, where the size of the fund varies according to market supply and demand, there are a number of key differences between the two types of funds.

Investors in unit trusts buy and sell a portion of the total fund in the form of units. The price unit holders initially pay for units (the bid price) is higher than the price they can sell the units for (the offer price): the difference between the two prices is known as the spread. In order for unit holders to make a return on their investment, the closing bid price must always be higher than the opening offer price. An OEIC fund on the other hand, does not trade in units but issues shares to its investors and is therefore an investment company – a less complex entity than a unit trust. Shares in an OEIC have a single price, which is determined by the value of the fund’s underlying investments. All shares in an OEIC are bought and sold at one single price, so theres no bid/offer spread to take into account.

The value of an investment in a unit trust or OEIC will vary according to the total value of the fund, which is determined by the performance of the investments the fund manager makes. Unit trusts and OEICs usually impose an up-front charge and annual management fees, some of which are declared as a percentage of the investment, while others are built into the price.

Consumer right protection in an open market economy

Globalization has an important effect on regional economies, societies and cultures. This is done by integrating a global network of societies, cultures and trade. The term is associated with economic globalization. There has been a positive effect on the development of third world nations.

India, China has emerged as global powers in terms of consumer market and cheap labor. This has resulted in improved opportunity for jobs that is pouring in from USA, Europe, etc. The integration of consumer market world wide has resulted in aggressive marketing. Several large corporations are doing business in USA.

There are several types of consumer protection laws to protect the interest of the consumers. This ensures quality control of product being sold in US market. The governments on several occasions promote competition to some extent. This indirectly has resulted in consumer protection too.

This is because presence of one single company for a particular product will result in monopoly business. If the product is a necessity then the consumers will be left with no space to bargain.

A consumer is a person who has purchased a good or a service with the intention of using it. A person who has purchased for the purpose of resale can’t be called a consumer. He can be retailer, distributor, agent, etc but not a consumer under any circumstance.

Here in USA both the federal and state governments take care of consumer related matters. There are several types of laws taking care of consumer related affairs, they are: 1) Fair Credit Reporting Act (federal law) 2) Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (USA Statute) 3) Truth in Lending Act (federal law) 4) Fair Credit Billing Act (federal law) 5) Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act or Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999

There are several other acts that are in the process of drafting and many other that will come up in the future. The federal level consumer protection is enforced by Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice.

There are several consumer protection groups and together lobbying groups which influence legislation. There are several groups and forums which educate consumers and provide them with tips in case of consumer right violation.

In terms of consumer protection law California has the most stringent protection laws. This is due to the presence of several influence groups that are active in this state -Consumer Federation of America, Utility Consumers Action Network, etc.

In case your consumer rights have been violated contact a . There are several good consumer lawyers who you can find from online legal directories or simply from internet. You can also get a lawyer or an attorney from consumer forums too.

If you are looking for a New York based reputed lawyer, please visit New York Attorney Directory to get the required information.